Medieval India

Medieval India (Materials)

Transformation of the Ancient Phase

 

  • The transformation from early historial to Medieval historical phase in India starts from the middle of the first millennium of the Christian era .
  • The Medieval historical transformation is first visible in Inscriptions .
  • The major evidence for understanding early medieval geographical changes of social lives are Inscriptions .
  • The social environments in medieval domains were based relatively stable economic areas .
  • Major dynasties had an average lifespan of more than 300 years .
  • The dynasties became cultural symbols of tradition in cultural territories .
  • Most medieval dynasties had combined elements of imperialism , regionalism and localism .
  • A king (raja) became a great king (maharaja) or “ king of kings “ (Maha rajadhi raja) by adding the names of more subordinate rulers or Samanthas to his list are called “ Multiple Sovereignties ”.
  • Major Tamil dynasties overlapped with Soveriegnties on 6th century are Pallava , Chola , Pandya ,Chera , Vijayanagara and Nayaka dynasties .
  • The largest dynasty in Tamil territory was Vijayanagar in Karnataka .
  • The Vijayanagara rulers spoke Telugu and Kannada .
  • The Medieval early territory was called a ‘ nadu’ ,that is a small circle of villages .
  • The Pandya country alone had thirty nadus in South of Maduri .
  • The single dominant warrier group evolved in medieval Rajastan was called Rajput ,derived from Rajaputra .
  • In 9th century separate clans of Rajput Chahamanas or Chauhans , Paramaras or Pawars Guhilas or Sisodias and Chalukyas or Solankis were branching off from the Gurjara Prathihara Clans .
  • They formed an Imperial medieval dynasty spread across Rajastan , Malwa and the Ganga basin .
  • Another group of warriors that propelled the medieval transition in India consisted of Clans in the high lands of Afganistan , Persia and Central Asia .
  • The Persian warrior to acquire tribute in Punjab by defeating Hindu sahis was Sabuktigin the Father of Muhmud of Ghazni .
  • Muhmud succeeded his father in 997 and extended his patrimonial ambition in all directions .
  • After conquering Afganistan and Persia the title obtained Muhmud from the Caliph was Yamin -ul – Daula means Right Hand of the state .
  • The famous Arab geographer , support Mahmud’s expansion in India was Al – Biruni .
  • The parts act as trading world of Central Asia in Muhmud ‘s time were Indus and Ganga basins
  • The eleventh and twelfth centuries in Indian History are usually witnessed the invasions of Muslim powers .
  • At this times more inscriptions are found in India than ever before .
  • In Medieval India the Ithihasa – Purana traditions were largely dominated for making genealogies of various dynasties based on sun moon etc .
  • The new political elites were greatly dependent on the priestly classes.
  • This period saw the extension of land under cultivation and settlement through land grants especially to Brahmins and temples .
  • A type of medieval land grants practice to Brahmins especially in South India was termed ‘ brahmadeyas ‘ .
  • The other category of grants to the brahmanical temples to South India was ‘ Devadana ‘.
  • The gift of land to officials picked up momentum in Post – Gupta period .
  • Very large territories were granted to vassals and high officers under the chalukyas of Gujarath , and it created another class of land lords .
  • The hereditary ownerships of a family to the rights of possession and Supervision in medieval period was ‘ Kani rights ‘ .
  • The names of various irrigation sources in different medieval Indian Provinces are as ,
    • Keres – tanks in South Karnataka
    • Nadi (river) ,Pushkarini (tank)
    • Srota (water channel) – Bengal
    • Agrahatta – wells in western Rajastan
    • Vapis – Stepwell in Rajastan and Gujrat
  • The landgrants paved the way for feaudal development in india .
  • The forced labour imposed to the peasants by the land loards are called ‘ Vishti ‘
  • The text that deals with medieval Indian agricultural economy was
    • “ The Kashy –Piya Krishisukti “
  • The text that mention the steps to cure disease of trees was
    • Vriksh ayurveda
  • Advanced knowledge about weather conditions and their use in agricultural operations was noticeable in texts as
    • The Gurusamhita and Krishiparasara
  • According to ‘ Shunya – Purana ‘ more than’ 50 ‘kinds of paddy were cultivated in Bengal .
  • The major facts in medieval Indian society makes social rauking was .
    • Land posession
  • The titles were conferred to the upper section in Medieval societies were
    • Thakur , Raut , Ranaka , Nayaka etc
  • The main Shudra scribes were
    • The Kayasthas , Karanas , likhakars and lipikars .
  • “ Gavundas “ are the Shudra scribes in
    • Decan
  • One of the most distinctive feature of the social change in Post – Gupta period was the increase in the rise of new casts in each Varna particularly in the Brahmanas .
  • ‘ Mitakshra ‘ the famous commentery of theSmriti of ‘ Yangya Valkya ‘ Speaks of the ten fold gradation of brahmanas .
  • The possition of women in the society gradually declined .
  • The Orthodox Brahmanical order was challenged by the Siva Sects as the pasupatas the Kamaka palikas and the Kala – Mukhas .
  • The famous devotional work on Muruga in Medieval South India was
    • ‘ The Tiru muruga Arruppadai ‘
  • The famous Sivaite Saints and Vaishnasvite Saints in the 6th and 7th Centuery were
    • The Nayanars and the Alvars respectively
  • The collections of hymn dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu , written in Tamil were ‘ the ‘Tirumurari ‘ and the Nalayirapara – bandhan ‘ respectively .
  • A famous women saint in this period was
    • Andal
  • Singing of the hymns accompanied by music and dance became regular feature of temple rituals like ‘ Bharatanatyam ‘ set by
    • Sage Bharata in his text ‘ the Natya Shastra ‘
  • ‘ Karakkal Ammai ’ was the only female Shiva Saints in TamilNadu .
  • The three powerful North Indian Kingdoms arose between 750 – 1000 AD were;
    • I. The Rashtrakutas in the Northern Decan
    • II. The Pratiharas in Avanti and parts of Southern Rajastan .
    • III. The palas in Bengal
  • The main reason behind the tripartiate struggle among the three powers was
    • Kanauj
  • Finally the Rashtrakutas were replaced by the later Chalukyas .
  • The Palas were replaced by the Senas .
  • The Pratihara kingdom broken up in to number of small kingdoms and some of them were ruled by the Rajput princes .
  • The first invader of India from the North West was (Persia).-
    • The Mahmud of Ghazni

Major Dynasties of North India

Prathiharas

 

  • Prathiharas were a branch of the Gurjaras
  • Arab writers Abuzaid and at Masudi allude their fights with the Gurjaras of the North.
  • The Kanarese poet ‘ pampa’ calls Mahipala ‘ Gurjaraja ‘ .
  • Prathiharas came in to prominance in the middle of the 8th century AD
  • The first famous king of Prathihara was
    • Nagabhatta 1
  • Their Principality comprising Malwa , parts of Rajpatena and Gujarath.
  • Nagabhatta 1 was succeeded by Vatsaraja
  • Vatsaraja defeated the famous Bandiclan an the king of Bengal Dharmapala .
  • Vatsa raja was defeated by the Rashtraking Dhruva .
  • Vatsaraj was succeeded by Nagabhatta II
  • The Rashtra kuta king defeated Nagabhatta II was Govinda II
  • Nagabhatta I I was Overran Kanauj , deposed Chakrayudha , Dharmapalas’s Protégé and made it the capital of Prathihara kingdom.
  • The Gwalior inscription tells Nagabhatta II ‘s Victories .
  • As per this inscription Nagabhatta II worn the following victories .
  • Anartta in north Kathiawar , Malwa or Central India , Matsyas or eastern Raj putana the kiratas of the Himalayas ,Thrustikas the Arab settlers of Western India and the Vatsas in the territory of Kausambi or Kosam .
  • Nagabhatta II was succeeded by Ramabhadra.
  • Ramabhadra’s reign lasted only three years .
  • Ramabhadra was succeeded by his son Bhoja , Known as “ Mihira Bhoja “
  • The Prathihara power reached glory at Bhoja ‘s period
  • Bhoja ‘s victory was inscripted on his “ Daulatpura copper plate – inscriptions “
  • Bhoja was defeated by the pala king Devapala
  • Bhoja’s contemporary Rashtra kuta king was Dhruva II
  • After Devapala ‘s death Bhoja defeated the weak pala successor Narayana pala .
  • Bhoja occupied Malwa after defeating the Rashtra kuta king Krishna II on the bank of the Narmada .
  • Bhoja ‘s regin lasted on long 46 years .
  • Bhoja’s regin and evenful carrer draw the attention of the Arab traveler sulaiman .
  • Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendra pala 1
  • Mahendra pala ‘s main achievement was the conquest of Magadha and Northern Bangal .
  • Rajashekara , the most brilliant writer was lived in Mahendra pala ‘ s court .
  • Rajashekara ‘s important literary works are Karpura manjari , BalaRamayana , Bala and Bharata , Kavyamimamsa .
  • After Mahendrapala’s death his son Bhoja II seized the throne , But his half brother Mahipala soon usurped the throne .
  • At this time the Rashtra kuta king Indra III completely devastated Kanauj .
  • After the withdrawl of Indra III to the deccan Mahipala’s to recover .
  • The Arab traveler at masudi went to India at Mahipala’s time .al – masudi reached in India on 915 – 16 AD
  • The Arab chronicle testify the struggle between the Rashtrakutas and the Prathiharas , the disposes of the latter .
  • Mahipala was succeeded by Devapala .
  • During Devapala’s time the chandellas became virtually independent .
  • The process of decline of the Prathihara empire had begun with Devapala .
  • The decline accelerated with the reign of his successors Vijaya pala and Rajyapala .
  • As per the inscription of the year 1036, the last ruler of the prathihara line was Yashpala .

 

Genealogical Tables of Prathiharas

 

Unnamed Ancestor

 

Nagabhatta 1

 

Vatsaraja

 

Nagabhatta II

 

Ramabhadra

 

Mihira Bhoja 1

 

Mahendrapala 1

 

Bhoja II

 

Mahipala (Kshitipala)

 

Vijayapala

 

Rajyapala

 

Trilochanapala

 

Yashpala

 

Palas

 

  • Pala dynasty was formed by Gopala in Bengal which ruled for nearly ‘ 4 ‘ centuries.
  • Gopala was born in Pundravarhana of bogra District in Bengal .
  • Gopala was an ardent Buddhist .
  • Gopala built the Monastry of Odantapuri , that is modern Bihar sherif .
  • Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala .
  • Dharmapala was involved in a struggle with two main powers the Rashtrakutas and the Prathiharas .
  • The prathihara ruler vatsaraja defeated Dharmapala in a battle at the Gangetic Doab .
  • The Rashtrakuta king Dhruva defeated both Dharmapala and Vatsaraja .
  • However after Vatsaraj’s defeat by Dhruva , and the latters left for the Deccan Dharmapala raised the Palakingdom to greatness .
  • Dharmapala installed Chakrayudha on the throne of Kanauj .
  • Dharmapala ‘s empire was extended as Bengal and Bihar at his direct rule Kanauj by his nomine , besides with large number of vassal states like the Punjab , Rajputane ,Malwa and Bengal .
  • The Prathihara king Nagabhatta II conquered Kanauj and drove away Dharmapala’ s portege Chakrayudha .
  • The Prathihara ruler Nagabhatta II defeated Dharmapala in a battle .
  • Dharmapala was rescued with the aid of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III .
  • Dharmapala ‘s reign was lasted for 32 years .
  • Dharmapala founded the famous Buddhist Mahavihera of Vikrama sila near Bhagalpur .
  • He is also construct a Vihara at Paharpur in Somapura .
  • According to Taranath Dharmapala founded ‘ 15 ‘ religious instructions .
  • Dharmapala was patron of the great Buddhist author ‘ Harihara’
  • Dharmapala was succeeded by his son Devapala .
  • Devapala was regarded as the most powerful pala ruler .
  • Devapala defeated the Gurjaras and the Hunas and conquered Utkala and Kamarupa .
  • Devapala’s Gurjara adversely was identified as MihiraBhoja .
  • The Arab merchant Sulaiman ,Visited India in 85 AD and refers to the Pala Kingdom as ‘ Ruhmi ‘.
  • Devapala was a great patron of Buddhism .
  • Balaputra deva ,the Buddhist king of Java sent an ambassador to Devapala,s court for a grant of five villages to endow monastery at Nalanda .
  • Devapala appointed ‘ Viradeva’ as head of Nalanda monastery .
  • Devapala’s court was adorned by the Buddhist poet Vajaradatta .
  • Vajradatta’s famous book was ‘ Lokesvara sataka’ .
  • The glory of Pala empire was began to decline with the death of Devapala .
  • Devapala was succeeded by Vigrahapala.
  • Who have only a short reign of three to for years .
  • Vigrahapala’s successor was his son Narayana pala .
  • The Rashtra kuta king defeated Devapala was Amoghavarsha.
  • Narayana pala was succeeded by his son Rajyapala
  • Rajyapala was succeeded by his son Gopala II
  • During these weak pala rulers period the invasions lead by Chandellas and Kalachuris disembered the pala empire .
  • Mahipala 1 was ascended the throne in AD 98
  • The Chola ruler Rajendra chola invaded Bengal at the time of Mahipala 1.
  • Rajendra’s Tirumalai Inscription records the details of his conquest in the north .
  • The last king of pala dynasty was Madana pala .

Genealogical Tables of Palas

 


Gopala1

 

Dharmapala

 

Devapala

 

Vigrahapala 1(surapala 1)

 

Narayanapala

 

Rajyapala

 

Gopala II

 

Vigrahapala 11

 

Mahipala 1

 

Nayapala1

 

Vigrahapala III

 

Surapala II

 

Madanapala

 

Senas

 

  • Founder of senas samanta sena
  • According to “Brahma kshatriya” Samanta sena was a Brahmin, his successors called themselves kshatriyas.
  • Samanta senas successor was his son ‘Hemanta sena’
  • The Sena ruler ,who ruled the empire more than sixty years was Vijaya sena , the son and successor of Hemanta Sena.
  • Vijaya sena lead the foundation of the greatness of senas by conquering nearly the whole of Bengal
  • The imperial title assumed by vijaya sena are paramesvara, parama bhattaraka,and Maha Rajadhi raja
  • The vijayasenas empire had two capitals one at vijayapuri in west Bengal and another at Vikramapura in Bengladesh.
  • The famous book “vijaya prasasti” deals vijayasenas memory it was composed by the poet ”Sri harsha”
  • Vijaya sena was succeeded by his son Ballala sena
  • Ballala sena was a great scholar and wrote four works
  • The two currently extending works of Bellalasena was the Danasagra and The Adbhuta sagara
  • The book of Bellala Sena deals about astromy was the Adbhutasagara.
  • Bellala sena was succeeded by his son Lekshmana sena in 1179
  • Lakshmana sena was a devout of Vishnava
  • The famous Vishnava poet of Bengal lived in Lekshmana sena’s court was Jayadeva
  • Jayadevas famous work was the “Gita Govinda”
  • Other celebrated poets lived in his court was Dhoyi, the author of the “Pavanaduta “and Govardhana , the author of the “Arya – Saptasati”
  • At this time the senas power was weakened by internal rebellions and the invasion of “Bhakhtiyar-khalji”
  • The detailed account of the invasion of Bhakhtiyar –khalj was given from” Tabakat-i-Nasiri”.
  • The “Adhbhuta sagra begun by Bellala sena was completed by Lakshmana sena
  • According to “Tabakat – i – Nasiri” Lakshmana sena descendants ruled parts of Bengal for some more times

 

Genealogical Tables of Sena

 

Vira sena (Ancestor)

 

Samanta sena

 

Hemanta sena

 

Vijaya sena

 

Ballala sena

 

Lakshmana sena

 

Visvarupasena

 

Purushottama sena

 

Rashtrakutas

 

  • The term ‘ Rashtrakuta ‘ denoes officers in charge of Rashtras .
  • Rashtrakutas originally belonged to Lattalura , that is modern Latur of Maharashtra .
  • They were of Kannada orgin
  • Their mothertongue was Kannada
  • Danti durga , a feudatory of the chalukyas , was known for the founder of this lasting empire
  • The Samanged plates and the Dasavatara cave inscriptions of Ellora describe the victorious carrier of Dantidurgas reign.
  • Dantidura signified his victory over malwa by performing hiranyagarbha dana cermoney at Ujjain
  • Dantidurga defeated the chalukya emperor Kirthi varman II and proclaimed himself as a paramount ruled of Deccan .
  • Dantidurga died childless , so after his death succeeded by his uncle Krishna 1 .
  • The Ganga ruler in Gandawadi or modern Mysore defeated by Krishna 1 was
    • Sripurasha
  • Krishna 1 constructed the rock cut Monolithic temple at Ellora called Kailasa temple .
  • Krishna 1 was succeeded by his eldest son Govinda II .
  • Govinda II was overthrown by his brother Dhruva .
  • The prathihara ruler defeated by Dhruva was Vatsaraja Prathihara in Kanauj .
  • Dhruva was succeeded by his son Govinda III
  • The major north Indian kings defeated by Govinda III was Nagabhatta II and his puppet Charayudha of Kanauj and the pala emperor Dharmapala.
  • Govinda III was succeeded by his son Srava, known as Amoghavarsha 1 .
  • Amoghavarsha’s reign was lasted long 64 years .
  • He was an admirof peace ,religion and literature .
  • Hene his reign lacked brilliance , Ganga wadi and malwa were lost to the empire .
  • His later life developed learning towards Jainism and jinasena ,the author of ‘ Adipurana ‘ was his chief preceptor .
  • The ‘ kavirajamarga ‘ the earliest work on poetics in the Kannada language was written by Amoghavarsha 1.
  • ‘ The city of manyakhela’ was built by Amoghavarsha 1.
  • Amoghavarsha 1 was succeeded by his son Krishna II .
  • Like Amoghavarsha 1 , Krishna II was a Jaina .
  • He was not a Warrior .
  • Krishna II ‘s only achievement was the termination of Gujarath Branch .
  • Krishna II was succeeded by his grandson indra III .
  • Indra III defeated the Prathihara emperor Mahipala and occupied Kanauj .
  • Indra III was Succeeded by his son Amoghavarsha II .
  • After a year of accession he was died and succeeded by his brother Govinda IV .
  • He was a tyrant , and it provoked universl resentment .
  • Due to a revolution , ended the inglorious reign of Govinda IV and the Crown transferred to Amoghavarsha III .
  • Amoghavarsha III was Succeeded by Krishna III.
  • Krishna III lead a lightening expedition to the Chola kingdom and captured Kanchi
  • and Tanjore .
  • AD 949 , a battle at Takkolam in the North Arcot District with Cholas .
  • Krishna defeated both the kerala and Pandya kings , occupying Rames varam for a time .
  • The famous temples built in Ramesvaram by Krishna III were the temples of Krishnnesvara , and Ganda martandatiya .
  • Krishna also effectively possessed Tondai mandala consisting of the Arcot ,Chingle put and Vellore District .
  • Krishna III defeated the Paramara in Malwa , Harsha Siyaka and occupied Ujjain .
  • His reign marked the dis inlegration of the Rashtrakuta empire .
  • After a few years of Krishna ‘s death his feaudatory Tailapa overthrown Rashtrakutas and to lay the foundation of the western chalukya empire of Kalyani .
  • Krishna III was succeeded by his half brother Kottiga .
  • Harsha siyaka , the Paramara king defeated by Krishna ,defeated Kottiga and sacked malkhed , the Rashtre kuta capital .
  • Kottiga was followed by his Nephew Karha II .
  • After eighteen month of his accession , Tailapa (Taila II ) of chalukya family deprived his Soverignty over Deccan .

Rashtra kuta Administration

Various units of Rashtrskuta empire as follows ,

 

Rashtras or provinces

 

Vishayas or districts

 

Bhuktis composed of 50-70 villages

 

Villages

 

  • The head of the Rashtras was Rashtrapati .
  • The head of the vishayas was Vishayapathi.
  • The head of the bhuktis was Bhogapatis or tuhsil officers .
  • They were appointed directly by central government .
  • The hereditary revenue officers helped Bhogapathis in bhuktis are called Nalgavundas or desagramarkutas .
  • The elders of the districts are called Vishaya Maharattas.
  • The elders of the provinces are called the Rashtra Maharattas .

 

Arts and Culture

 

  • The kavi rahasya of Halayudha was composed in the reign of Krishna III.
  • Trivikram the author were of the Nala champu lived in Rashtrakuta court .
  • Rashtra kutas were mainly patrons of the Jainism .
  • Sanskrit literature were widely patronisd .
  • The main Jain works in this period were ,

Ashta sati and Ashta sahasri , these are two commentaries of the Aptamimamsa .

Wrote by Akalanka and Vidyanandha .

 

  • Manikya nandin wrote logic books Pariksha mukha sastra , and Naya kaumudic chandrodaya .
  • Amoghavarsha 1’s period saw the Rashtrakuta’s high point of Jaina literature .
  • ‘Harivamsa’ was composed by his spiritual preceptor Harisena .
  • ‘ Adi purana ‘ life stories of various Jaina saints began by Harisena was completed by his disciple ,’Gunabhadra‘
  • ‘Parsvabhyu daya’ was composed by Jainsena
  • Amogha vritti a work on grammar by Saktayana and ‘Ganitasarasamgrahaka’ of Viracharya a treatise on Mathematics .
  • Were two other important works of Amoghavarsha ‘s period .
  • The beginning of the Canarese literature was in Rashtrakutas’s period.
  • ‘Kaviraja marga’ written by Amogha varsha 1 was the first work of canarese on poetics .
  • Vikramarjuna vijaya written by Pampa 1 at this period .
  • Ponna author of santi purana lived in Rashtrs kuta’s court .

Genealogical tables of Rashtrakutas

 

Danti durga ( AD 752 – 56)

 

Krishna 1 (AD 756 – 75)

 

Govinda II (AD 775- 80)

 

Dhruva (AD 780-92)

 

Govinda III (AD 792-814)

 

Amoghavarsha 1/ Srava (AD 814 – 80)

 

Krishna II (AD 880 – 915)

 

Indra III (AD 915 – 27)

 

Amoghavarsha II (AD 927 – 30)

 

Govinda IV (AD 930 – 34)

 

Amoghavarsha III (AD 934 39)

 

Krishna III (AD 939 – 68)

 

Khottiga (AD 968 – 72)

 

Karka (AD 972 – 983)

 

 

 

 

×

Hello!

Click one of our representatives below to chat on WhatsApp or send us an email to info@c4competition.com

× Whatsapp
© 2020 All Rights Reserved, c4competition
Powered by