Medieval India (Materials)
Transformation of the Ancient Phase
- The transformation from early historial to Medieval historical phase in India starts from the middle of the first millennium of the Christian era .
- The Medieval historical transformation is first visible in Inscriptions .
- The major evidence for understanding early medieval geographical changes of social lives are Inscriptions .
- The social environments in medieval domains were based relatively stable economic areas .
- Major dynasties had an average lifespan of more than 300 years .
- The dynasties became cultural symbols of tradition in cultural territories .
- Most medieval dynasties had combined elements of imperialism , regionalism and localism .
- A king (raja) became a great king (maharaja) or “ king of kings “ (Maha rajadhi raja) by adding the names of more subordinate rulers or Samanthas to his list are called “ Multiple Sovereignties ”.
- Major Tamil dynasties overlapped with Soveriegnties on 6th century are Pallava , Chola , Pandya ,Chera , Vijayanagara and Nayaka dynasties .
- The largest dynasty in Tamil territory was Vijayanagar in Karnataka .
- The Vijayanagara rulers spoke Telugu and Kannada .
- The Medieval early territory was called a ‘ nadu’ ,that is a small circle of villages .
- The Pandya country alone had thirty nadus in South of Maduri .
- The single dominant warrier group evolved in medieval Rajastan was called Rajput ,derived from Rajaputra .
- In 9th century separate clans of Rajput Chahamanas or Chauhans , Paramaras or Pawars Guhilas or Sisodias and Chalukyas or Solankis were branching off from the Gurjara Prathihara Clans .
- They formed an Imperial medieval dynasty spread across Rajastan , Malwa and the Ganga basin .
- Another group of warriors that propelled the medieval transition in India consisted of Clans in the high lands of Afganistan , Persia and Central Asia .
- The Persian warrior to acquire tribute in Punjab by defeating Hindu sahis was Sabuktigin the Father of Muhmud of Ghazni .
- Muhmud succeeded his father in 997 and extended his patrimonial ambition in all directions .
- After conquering Afganistan and Persia the title obtained Muhmud from the Caliph was Yamin -ul – Daula means Right Hand of the state .
- The famous Arab geographer , support Mahmud’s expansion in India was Al – Biruni .
- The parts act as trading world of Central Asia in Muhmud ‘s time were Indus and Ganga basins
- The eleventh and twelfth centuries in Indian History are usually witnessed the invasions of Muslim powers .
- At this times more inscriptions are found in India than ever before .
- In Medieval India the Ithihasa – Purana traditions were largely dominated for making genealogies of various dynasties based on sun moon etc .
- The new political elites were greatly dependent on the priestly classes.
- This period saw the extension of land under cultivation and settlement through land grants especially to Brahmins and temples .
- A type of medieval land grants practice to Brahmins especially in South India was termed ‘ brahmadeyas ‘ .
- The other category of grants to the brahmanical temples to South India was ‘ Devadana ‘.
- The gift of land to officials picked up momentum in Post – Gupta period .
- Very large territories were granted to vassals and high officers under the chalukyas of Gujarath , and it created another class of land lords .
- The hereditary ownerships of a family to the rights of possession and Supervision in medieval period was ‘ Kani rights ‘ .
- The names of various irrigation sources in different medieval Indian Provinces are as ,
- Keres – tanks in South Karnataka
- Nadi (river) ,Pushkarini (tank)
- Srota (water channel) – Bengal
- Agrahatta – wells in western Rajastan
- Vapis – Stepwell in Rajastan and Gujrat
- The landgrants paved the way for feaudal development in india .
- The forced labour imposed to the peasants by the land loards are called ‘ Vishti ‘
- The text that deals with medieval Indian agricultural economy was
- “ The Kashy –Piya Krishisukti “
- The text that mention the steps to cure disease of trees was
- Vriksh ayurveda
- Advanced knowledge about weather conditions and their use in agricultural operations was noticeable in texts as
- The Gurusamhita and Krishiparasara
- According to ‘ Shunya – Purana ‘ more than’ 50 ‘kinds of paddy were cultivated in Bengal .
- The major facts in medieval Indian society makes social rauking was .
- Land posession
- The titles were conferred to the upper section in Medieval societies were
- Thakur , Raut , Ranaka , Nayaka etc
- The main Shudra scribes were
- The Kayasthas , Karanas , likhakars and lipikars .
- “ Gavundas “ are the Shudra scribes in
- One of the most distinctive feature of the social change in Post – Gupta period was the increase in the rise of new casts in each Varna particularly in the Brahmanas .
- ‘ Mitakshra ‘ the famous commentery of theSmriti of ‘ Yangya Valkya ‘ Speaks of the ten fold gradation of brahmanas .
- The possition of women in the society gradually declined .
- The Orthodox Brahmanical order was challenged by the Siva Sects as the pasupatas the Kamaka palikas and the Kala – Mukhas .
- The famous devotional work on Muruga in Medieval South India was
- ‘ The Tiru muruga Arruppadai ‘
- The famous Sivaite Saints and Vaishnasvite Saints in the 6th and 7th Centuery were
- The Nayanars and the Alvars respectively
- The collections of hymn dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu , written in Tamil were ‘ the ‘Tirumurari ‘ and the Nalayirapara – bandhan ‘ respectively .
- A famous women saint in this period was
- Singing of the hymns accompanied by music and dance became regular feature of temple rituals like ‘ Bharatanatyam ‘ set by
- Sage Bharata in his text ‘ the Natya Shastra ‘
- ‘ Karakkal Ammai ’ was the only female Shiva Saints in TamilNadu .
- The three powerful North Indian Kingdoms arose between 750 – 1000 AD were;
- I. The Rashtrakutas in the Northern Decan
- II. The Pratiharas in Avanti and parts of Southern Rajastan .
- III. The palas in Bengal
- The main reason behind the tripartiate struggle among the three powers was
- Finally the Rashtrakutas were replaced by the later Chalukyas .
- The Palas were replaced by the Senas .
- The Pratihara kingdom broken up in to number of small kingdoms and some of them were ruled by the Rajput princes .
- The first invader of India from the North West was (Persia).-
- The Mahmud of Ghazni
Major Dynasties of North India
- Prathiharas were a branch of the Gurjaras
- Arab writers Abuzaid and at Masudi allude their fights with the Gurjaras of the North.
- The Kanarese poet ‘ pampa’ calls Mahipala ‘ Gurjaraja ‘ .
- Prathiharas came in to prominance in the middle of the 8th century AD
- The first famous king of Prathihara was
- Nagabhatta 1
- Their Principality comprising Malwa , parts of Rajpatena and Gujarath.
- Nagabhatta 1 was succeeded by Vatsaraja
- Vatsaraja defeated the famous Bandiclan an the king of Bengal Dharmapala .
- Vatsa raja was defeated by the Rashtraking Dhruva .
- Vatsaraj was succeeded by Nagabhatta II
- The Rashtra kuta king defeated Nagabhatta II was Govinda II
- Nagabhatta I I was Overran Kanauj , deposed Chakrayudha , Dharmapalas’s Protégé and made it the capital of Prathihara kingdom.
- The Gwalior inscription tells Nagabhatta II ‘s Victories .
- As per this inscription Nagabhatta II worn the following victories .
- Anartta in north Kathiawar , Malwa or Central India , Matsyas or eastern Raj putana the kiratas of the Himalayas ,Thrustikas the Arab settlers of Western India and the Vatsas in the territory of Kausambi or Kosam .
- Nagabhatta II was succeeded by Ramabhadra.
- Ramabhadra’s reign lasted only three years .
- Ramabhadra was succeeded by his son Bhoja , Known as “ Mihira Bhoja “
- The Prathihara power reached glory at Bhoja ‘s period
- Bhoja ‘s victory was inscripted on his “ Daulatpura copper plate – inscriptions “
- Bhoja was defeated by the pala king Devapala
- Bhoja’s contemporary Rashtra kuta king was Dhruva II
- After Devapala ‘s death Bhoja defeated the weak pala successor Narayana pala .
- Bhoja occupied Malwa after defeating the Rashtra kuta king Krishna II on the bank of the Narmada .
- Bhoja ‘s regin lasted on long 46 years .
- Bhoja’s regin and evenful carrer draw the attention of the Arab traveler sulaiman .
- Bhoja was succeeded by his son Mahendra pala 1
- Mahendra pala ‘s main achievement was the conquest of Magadha and Northern Bangal .
- Rajashekara , the most brilliant writer was lived in Mahendra pala ‘ s court .
- Rajashekara ‘s important literary works are Karpura manjari , BalaRamayana , Bala and Bharata , Kavyamimamsa .
- After Mahendrapala’s death his son Bhoja II seized the throne , But his half brother Mahipala soon usurped the throne .
- At this time the Rashtra kuta king Indra III completely devastated Kanauj .
- After the withdrawl of Indra III to the deccan Mahipala’s to recover .
- The Arab traveler at masudi went to India at Mahipala’s time .al – masudi reached in India on 915 – 16 AD
- The Arab chronicle testify the struggle between the Rashtrakutas and the Prathiharas , the disposes of the latter .
- Mahipala was succeeded by Devapala .
- During Devapala’s time the chandellas became virtually independent .
- The process of decline of the Prathihara empire had begun with Devapala .
- The decline accelerated with the reign of his successors Vijaya pala and Rajyapala .
- As per the inscription of the year 1036, the last ruler of the prathihara line was Yashpala .
Genealogical Tables of Prathiharas
Mihira Bhoja 1
- Pala dynasty was formed by Gopala in Bengal which ruled for nearly ‘ 4 ‘ centuries.
- Gopala was born in Pundravarhana of bogra District in Bengal .
- Gopala was an ardent Buddhist .
- Gopala built the Monastry of Odantapuri , that is modern Bihar sherif .
- Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala .
- Dharmapala was involved in a struggle with two main powers the Rashtrakutas and the Prathiharas .
- The prathihara ruler vatsaraja defeated Dharmapala in a battle at the Gangetic Doab .
- The Rashtrakuta king Dhruva defeated both Dharmapala and Vatsaraja .
- However after Vatsaraj’s defeat by Dhruva , and the latters left for the Deccan Dharmapala raised the Palakingdom to greatness .
- Dharmapala installed Chakrayudha on the throne of Kanauj .
- Dharmapala ‘s empire was extended as Bengal and Bihar at his direct rule Kanauj by his nomine , besides with large number of vassal states like the Punjab , Rajputane ,Malwa and Bengal .
- The Prathihara king Nagabhatta II conquered Kanauj and drove away Dharmapala’ s portege Chakrayudha .
- The Prathihara ruler Nagabhatta II defeated Dharmapala in a battle .
- Dharmapala was rescued with the aid of the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III .
- Dharmapala ‘s reign was lasted for 32 years .
- Dharmapala founded the famous Buddhist Mahavihera of Vikrama sila near Bhagalpur .
- He is also construct a Vihara at Paharpur in Somapura .
- According to Taranath Dharmapala founded ‘ 15 ‘ religious instructions .
- Dharmapala was patron of the great Buddhist author ‘ Harihara’
- Dharmapala was succeeded by his son Devapala .
- Devapala was regarded as the most powerful pala ruler .
- Devapala defeated the Gurjaras and the Hunas and conquered Utkala and Kamarupa .
- Devapala’s Gurjara adversely was identified as MihiraBhoja .
- The Arab merchant Sulaiman ,Visited India in 85 AD and refers to the Pala Kingdom as ‘ Ruhmi ‘.
- Devapala was a great patron of Buddhism .
- Balaputra deva ,the Buddhist king of Java sent an ambassador to Devapala,s court for a grant of five villages to endow monastery at Nalanda .
- Devapala appointed ‘ Viradeva’ as head of Nalanda monastery .
- Devapala’s court was adorned by the Buddhist poet Vajaradatta .
- Vajradatta’s famous book was ‘ Lokesvara sataka’ .
- The glory of Pala empire was began to decline with the death of Devapala .
- Devapala was succeeded by Vigrahapala.
- Who have only a short reign of three to for years .
- Vigrahapala’s successor was his son Narayana pala .
- The Rashtra kuta king defeated Devapala was Amoghavarsha.
- Narayana pala was succeeded by his son Rajyapala
- Rajyapala was succeeded by his son Gopala II
- During these weak pala rulers period the invasions lead by Chandellas and Kalachuris disembered the pala empire .
- Mahipala 1 was ascended the throne in AD 98
- The Chola ruler Rajendra chola invaded Bengal at the time of Mahipala 1.
- Rajendra’s Tirumalai Inscription records the details of his conquest in the north .
- The last king of pala dynasty was Madana pala .
Genealogical Tables of Palas
Vigrahapala 1(surapala 1)
- Founder of senas samanta sena
- According to “Brahma kshatriya” Samanta sena was a Brahmin, his successors called themselves kshatriyas.
- Samanta senas successor was his son ‘Hemanta sena’
- The Sena ruler ,who ruled the empire more than sixty years was Vijaya sena , the son and successor of Hemanta Sena.
- Vijaya sena lead the foundation of the greatness of senas by conquering nearly the whole of Bengal
- The imperial title assumed by vijaya sena are paramesvara, parama bhattaraka,and Maha Rajadhi raja
- The vijayasenas empire had two capitals one at vijayapuri in west Bengal and another at Vikramapura in Bengladesh.
- The famous book “vijaya prasasti” deals vijayasenas memory it was composed by the poet ”Sri harsha”
- Vijaya sena was succeeded by his son Ballala sena
- Ballala sena was a great scholar and wrote four works
- The two currently extending works of Bellalasena was the Danasagra and The Adbhuta sagara
- The book of Bellala Sena deals about astromy was the Adbhutasagara.
- Bellala sena was succeeded by his son Lekshmana sena in 1179
- Lakshmana sena was a devout of Vishnava
- The famous Vishnava poet of Bengal lived in Lekshmana sena’s court was Jayadeva
- Jayadevas famous work was the “Gita Govinda”
- Other celebrated poets lived in his court was Dhoyi, the author of the “Pavanaduta “and Govardhana , the author of the “Arya – Saptasati”
- At this time the senas power was weakened by internal rebellions and the invasion of “Bhakhtiyar-khalji”
- The detailed account of the invasion of Bhakhtiyar –khalj was given from” Tabakat-i-Nasiri”.
- The “Adhbhuta sagra begun by Bellala sena was completed by Lakshmana sena
- According to “Tabakat – i – Nasiri” Lakshmana sena descendants ruled parts of Bengal for some more times
Genealogical Tables of Sena
Vira sena (Ancestor)
- The term ‘ Rashtrakuta ‘ denoes officers in charge of Rashtras .
- Rashtrakutas originally belonged to Lattalura , that is modern Latur of Maharashtra .
- They were of Kannada orgin
- Their mothertongue was Kannada
- Danti durga , a feudatory of the chalukyas , was known for the founder of this lasting empire
- The Samanged plates and the Dasavatara cave inscriptions of Ellora describe the victorious carrier of Dantidurgas reign.
- Dantidura signified his victory over malwa by performing hiranyagarbha dana cermoney at Ujjain
- Dantidurga defeated the chalukya emperor Kirthi varman II and proclaimed himself as a paramount ruled of Deccan .
- Dantidurga died childless , so after his death succeeded by his uncle Krishna 1 .
- The Ganga ruler in Gandawadi or modern Mysore defeated by Krishna 1 was
- Krishna 1 constructed the rock cut Monolithic temple at Ellora called Kailasa temple .
- Krishna 1 was succeeded by his eldest son Govinda II .
- Govinda II was overthrown by his brother Dhruva .
- The prathihara ruler defeated by Dhruva was Vatsaraja Prathihara in Kanauj .
- Dhruva was succeeded by his son Govinda III
- The major north Indian kings defeated by Govinda III was Nagabhatta II and his puppet Charayudha of Kanauj and the pala emperor Dharmapala.
- Govinda III was succeeded by his son Srava, known as Amoghavarsha 1 .
- Amoghavarsha’s reign was lasted long 64 years .
- He was an admirof peace ,religion and literature .
- Hene his reign lacked brilliance , Ganga wadi and malwa were lost to the empire .
- His later life developed learning towards Jainism and jinasena ,the author of ‘ Adipurana ‘ was his chief preceptor .
- The ‘ kavirajamarga ‘ the earliest work on poetics in the Kannada language was written by Amoghavarsha 1.
- ‘ The city of manyakhela’ was built by Amoghavarsha 1.
- Amoghavarsha 1 was succeeded by his son Krishna II .
- Like Amoghavarsha 1 , Krishna II was a Jaina .
- He was not a Warrior .
- Krishna II ‘s only achievement was the termination of Gujarath Branch .
- Krishna II was succeeded by his grandson indra III .
- Indra III defeated the Prathihara emperor Mahipala and occupied Kanauj .
- Indra III was Succeeded by his son Amoghavarsha II .
- After a year of accession he was died and succeeded by his brother Govinda IV .
- He was a tyrant , and it provoked universl resentment .
- Due to a revolution , ended the inglorious reign of Govinda IV and the Crown transferred to Amoghavarsha III .
- Amoghavarsha III was Succeeded by Krishna III.
- Krishna III lead a lightening expedition to the Chola kingdom and captured Kanchi
- and Tanjore .
- AD 949 , a battle at Takkolam in the North Arcot District with Cholas .
- Krishna defeated both the kerala and Pandya kings , occupying Rames varam for a time .
- The famous temples built in Ramesvaram by Krishna III were the temples of Krishnnesvara , and Ganda martandatiya .
- Krishna also effectively possessed Tondai mandala consisting of the Arcot ,Chingle put and Vellore District .
- Krishna III defeated the Paramara in Malwa , Harsha Siyaka and occupied Ujjain .
- His reign marked the dis inlegration of the Rashtrakuta empire .
- After a few years of Krishna ‘s death his feaudatory Tailapa overthrown Rashtrakutas and to lay the foundation of the western chalukya empire of Kalyani .
- Krishna III was succeeded by his half brother Kottiga .
- Harsha siyaka , the Paramara king defeated by Krishna ,defeated Kottiga and sacked malkhed , the Rashtre kuta capital .
- Kottiga was followed by his Nephew Karha II .
- After eighteen month of his accession , Tailapa (Taila II ) of chalukya family deprived his Soverignty over Deccan .
Rashtra kuta Administration
Various units of Rashtrskuta empire as follows ,
Rashtras or provinces
Vishayas or districts
Bhuktis composed of 50-70 villages
- The head of the Rashtras was Rashtrapati .
- The head of the vishayas was Vishayapathi.
- The head of the bhuktis was Bhogapatis or tuhsil officers .
- They were appointed directly by central government .
- The hereditary revenue officers helped Bhogapathis in bhuktis are called Nalgavundas or desagramarkutas .
- The elders of the districts are called Vishaya Maharattas.
- The elders of the provinces are called the Rashtra Maharattas .
Arts and Culture
- The kavi rahasya of Halayudha was composed in the reign of Krishna III.
- Trivikram the author were of the Nala champu lived in Rashtrakuta court .
- Rashtra kutas were mainly patrons of the Jainism .
- Sanskrit literature were widely patronisd .
- The main Jain works in this period were ,
Ashta sati and Ashta sahasri , these are two commentaries of the Aptamimamsa .
Wrote by Akalanka and Vidyanandha .
- Manikya nandin wrote logic books Pariksha mukha sastra , and Naya kaumudic chandrodaya .
- Amoghavarsha 1’s period saw the Rashtrakuta’s high point of Jaina literature .
- ‘Harivamsa’ was composed by his spiritual preceptor Harisena .
- ‘ Adi purana ‘ life stories of various Jaina saints began by Harisena was completed by his disciple ,’Gunabhadra‘
- ‘Parsvabhyu daya’ was composed by Jainsena
- Amogha vritti a work on grammar by Saktayana and ‘Ganitasarasamgrahaka’ of Viracharya a treatise on Mathematics .
- Were two other important works of Amoghavarsha ‘s period .
- The beginning of the Canarese literature was in Rashtrakutas’s period.
- ‘Kaviraja marga’ written by Amogha varsha 1 was the first work of canarese on poetics .
- Vikramarjuna vijaya written by Pampa 1 at this period .
- Ponna author of santi purana lived in Rashtrs kuta’s court .
Genealogical tables of Rashtrakutas
Danti durga ( AD 752 – 56)
Krishna 1 (AD 756 – 75)
Govinda II (AD 775- 80)
Dhruva (AD 780-92)
Govinda III (AD 792-814)
Amoghavarsha 1/ Srava (AD 814 – 80)
Krishna II (AD 880 – 915)
Indra III (AD 915 – 27)
Amoghavarsha II (AD 927 – 30)
Govinda IV (AD 930 – 34)
Amoghavarsha III (AD 934 39)
Krishna III (AD 939 – 68)
Khottiga (AD 968 – 72)
Karka (AD 972 – 983)