British Expansion in India
- The English East India Company was formed in 1600.
- The First English factory was set – up at Surat.
- The English defeated the Portuguese at Swally off Surat in 1612 , and at Ormuz in the Persian gulf in 1614.
- The Dutch were drives out from india in 1695 .
- Surat was the center of English trade till 1687 .
- The English factories also established at Madras , Masulipatnam and Culcutta .
- In 1664 the French had formed a company to trade with india .
- The center of French in India was Pondicherry.
- The century from 1754 to 1857 witnessed the English East India company extend its indirect rule over the Indian Priencely states .
- British India came to consist of “ 3/5 th “ of Indian territory with “ 3 quarters” of its population .
- The company posted ‘ residants ‘ in each of major Indian states for developing political and economical relation ships.
- By shifting Military power to subsidiary forces under the control of company many of rulers became powerless and weak end.
- The French East India company was the First one , to evolved the strategy of European intervention in the internal affairs of the Indian States .
- Over the course of the 18th century , the Mughal Empire gradually disintegrated in to its constituent regions.
- Provincial governors became autonomous rulers in some of the richest regions of Empire including Bengal , Awadh and Hydrabad.
- This diversity of politics came a range of relationhips with the east India company.
- The Anglo – French trade and political rivalry of India was culminated in the wars of Carnatic , a Mugal Subah .
- By the end of the third carnatic war the French were constrained only in South India .
First carnatic war ( 1745 – 48 )
- The then Chief Official of the French company at Pondicherry was „ Dupleix‟.
- The fort sacked by French through expelling English out was „ St. George‟.
- Capture of the French ships by the English navy under Barnett was on 1745.
- Retaliation of the French under Dupleix by the capture of Madras on 1746.
- The Carnatic Nawab helped to the English against the French was Anwarud – din.
- The battle between the Nawab and the French was occurred at St.Thome.
- The result of the First Carnatic war was the severe defeat of the traditional Indian army against the Europian (French ) trained armies.
- End of the war of the Austrian successiors Europe resulting the end of Anglo French hostilities in india on 1748.
- Restoration of Madras to the English by French.
Second Carnatic War ( 1749 – 54 )
- The main reason behind the second war was the struggle arised in the Carnatic and Hyderabad , for the Nawab ship .
- The two companies backed rival candidates to the Nawab ship.
- French support to Muzaffar Jung and Chanda sahib in Hyderabad and Carnatic respectively.
- English support Nasir Jung in Hyderabad and at First Anwar- ud – din and later his son Muhammad Ali in the Carnatic.
- In 1749 French was succeeded and placed their supporters to the throne both in Hyderbad and Carnatic.
- In 1751 English captured Arcot under Robert clive , defeated the French army.
- In 1752 , a war lead by the British army , general of Tanjore captured and executed Chanda Sahib and placed Muhammed Ali to the throne of the Carnatic.
- However in 1753 – 54, Dupleix tried to reverse the English , his effort was not fulfilled.
- After second Carnatic war Dupleix was replaced by Bussy at Hyderabad.
Third Carnatic war ( 1758 – 63)
- The Final phase of the struggle for dominance started in 1756 due to the out break of the ‘Seven Years’ war in Europe.
- In 1757 Clive and Watson captured the French center in Bengal – chandra nagore.
- The French general arrived to India in 1758 to retrive their possition in India was
- Count – de – Lally
- The French fleet under d’Ache was defeated by the English navy under ‘Pocock’ in three naval battles.
- The departure of d ‘ Ache for France in 1759.
- The battle of ‘ Wandi Wash ‘ was on 1760 January 22.
- Wandi wash was a fort in Carnatic state.
- The French general Count – de – Lalley was defeated in Wandi wash by the English General Eyre Coote.
- The result of this battle the French was replaced by the English as Nizam‟s protectors on March ,1760.
- Surrender of Pondicherry and loss of all French settlement in india on 1761.
- The third Carnatic war was ended with the “ treaty of paris” in 1763.
- The French were given trading rights , and Pondicherry was also restored to them.
The British Conquest of Bengal
Battle of Plassey – 1757
- The company enjoyed great priviliges in Bengal in the form of a ‘ Farman ‘ granted by Mughal emperor “Farrukh Siyar” on 1717.
- It enable the company taxless exportation and importation of goods in Bengal , and also gave the right to issue dastak or free pass for the movement of such goods.
- The company misinterpreted and misused the farman and dastaks respectively.
- The Nawabs of Bengal Murshid Qulikhan , Sarfaraz khan and Alivardi khan objected to the Misuse of farman.
- After these Nawabs a new personality namely Siraj – ud – daula was came to the head of Bengal.
- The New Nawab wanted to impose the same restrictions as done by his pre decessors on the British.
- The fortification of Culcutta by the British against the Nawab‟s order.
- The Nawab attacked and took culcutta in 1756.
- These were „146‟ British prisoners thrown in to a tiny room and except 20‟ died of suffocation , that is known as the famous “ Black hole tragedy ”.
- This incident lead to the historious „Battle of plassy”.
- ‘Plasssy’ is a village and pargana 20 miles from Murshida bad.
- On June 23 1757 the battle fought between the British under Robert Clive and those of Nawab Siraj – ud – daulah.
- Robert clive captured Chandra nagar and Culcutta.
- The two generals sincearly fought for Nawab were Mir Madau and Mohan lal.
- The other three general from Nawab‟s side secretely in league with the British were Mir Jafar , Yar Lutuf khan , and Rai Durlabh.
- After Battle of Plassey the British choosen as a “puppet” in the place of Nawab was Mir jafar.
- After Mir Jafar , Mir quasim was the new nawab of Bengal.
- The Battle of Plassey paved the way for the British mastery of Bengal and gradually the whole of India.
- It marked the beginning of the drawn of wealth from india to Britain ,that is economic exploitation.
Battle of Buxar – 1764
- The next important Battle in Bengal after Plassy was “Battle of Buxar”.
- The nawab of Bengal Mir Quasmic took up arms against the British on 1763,due to the conflict of sovereignty between them.
- The Nawab was defeated and driven out from Bengal , and took refuge with Shuja – ud – daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
- The Mugal emperor , Shah Alam II had also fled to Awadh by the British.
- The above three formed an alliance.
- The Buxar was a town lies to the west of Patna.
- The battle was fought here on October 22, 1764 between British troops under major
- Hector munro and the combined Indian forces of Mir Quasim , Shuja -ud- daula , and Shah Alam II.
- The huge numbered combined Indian forces defeated by the british , due to lack of co – ordination.
- The European Mercenaries helped mir Quasim were the brigades of Marker and Sumroo.
- The victory in Battle of Buxar made the British de facto rulers of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa ,paved the way for dual government .
- Made the Nawab of Awadh a dependent of company , the Mughal emperor ,Became a pensioner of company and resided in Allahabad for six years.
- Thus demonstrated the superiority of the English in Military skills and arms.
Anglo – Mysore wars and british Expansion
- Mysore was grown a powerful state under Haider Ali.
- There were four wars were fought between Mysore and the British.
First War ( 1766 – 69 )
- The main causes for the war were Haider‟s ambition to drive the British away from carnatic and finally from India.
- A tripartiate alliance was formed against Haider by the British , the Nizam and the Marathas.
- However Haider Ali was successfully braked the alliance and declared of war on British.
- Haider Ali enjoyed a brilliant victory over the British on the First Mysore war of Madras in March 1769.
- The war was ended in april 1769 by a treaty namely “ Treaty of Madras”.
- The treaty of madras was signed by Haider Ali with the allies , the British, the Raja of
- Tanjore ,and the Malabar ruller.The trade priviliges of Bombey presidency and English factories were to be restored.
Second War (1780 – 84)
- Refusal of the English side to fullfill the terms of “Madras freaty” was the main reason behind the Second war.
- The hostilities between English and French , an ally of Haider during American war of Independence was also a reason to the war.
- Mahe, te French port and mysore‟s only outlet to trading with Europe occupied the British.
- In 1779 Haider formed an alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas , against the English.
- In 1780 Haider protested against the company and Defeated colonel Baillie, and seized Arcot.
- In 1781 British Army under Sir Eyre coot defeated Haider at Port Novo.
- In 1782, December Haider Ali was died and the war was carried by his son Tipu Sultan.
- In 1783 , Tipu captured Brigadier Mathews, and his collegues.
- Since neither side was capable of overpowering the other, peace was signed by in March ,1784 through “the treaty of Mangalore”.
- The treaty was signed by Tippu sultan and Lord Macartney ,governer of Madras.
- According to the treaty two parties were not assist each others enemies.
- The trade priviliges grauted to the company by Haider Ali in 1770 were to be restored.
- Mutual restoration of possessions except the fort of Amboorgur and Satgaur.
- Tipu undertook not to make any claims on the Carnatic in Future and agreed to release all prisoners of in war.
- Tipu was restored the possessions of company at Culcutta until 1779.
Third War ( 1790 – 92)
- The main causes behind the war were Tipu‟s success in strengthening his position.
- In 1787 Tipu sending envoy to the countries of France and Turkey for help to acquire more territories.
- In 1789, Enlargement of territories by Tipu at the lost of his neighbours especially the Raja of Tanjore , a british alley.
- In 1790, British successfully concluded an ally with the Nizam and the Marathas against Tipu.
- In 1790 Tipu defeated the British commandent Major General Medows, after that in
- 1791 January Lord Cornwallis was assumpted as the command.
- In 1792 February Cornwallis defeated Tipu at Seringa patam.
- In 1792 March the third war was ended by the “Treaty of Seringa patam”.
- The treaty was signed by Tipu sulthan and the English with allies the Nizam and the Marathas.
- According to the treaty ,Tipu was to cede half his territories ,were to be shared among the three allies.
- The north and east of the river Kaveri were to be part of the company‟s dominion and those to the South and West of the river Tipu‟s.
- Tippu was to make a payment of Rs 3.6 crore as the indemnity to the British ,out of these Rs 1.6 crore immediately and the remaining in three installments.
- Tipu was to order to the release of all prisoners of war.
- Two of Tipu‟s sons were to be detained as british hostage.
Fourth war (1799)
The main reasons were
- Desire of Tipu to average his humiliating defeat in the third war.
- Tipu tryed to seek help from the revolutionary France, and the Muslims of Arabia ,
- Turkey and Kabul for expelling the British from India.
- In 1798 April a small French force landed at Mangalore.
- Lord Wellesley, the British governer general desided to remove the threat from Tipu.
- In 1799 March 5 Tipu was defeated by Stuart at Sedaseer then in March 27 by General Harris at Malvelley.
- Arthur Wellesley, the battle of waterloo with Napolean was participated in the 4th mysore war.
- Major part of Mysore was annexed by the British.
- A small part was restored to the successor of former Hindu Raja of Wodeyar Dynasty Krishna raja III , a 5 year boy.
- In 1799 the subsidiary treaty was signed by the new Raja.
- In 1831 William Bentic took over the administration of mysore due to Misgovernment of its ruler.
- In 1881 , Lord Ripon restored if to its ruler.
Anglo – Maratha Wars and Treaties
- The old Maratha confederacy was controlled by Peshwas.
- Gradually the Maratha confederacy given way to five virtually independent states.
- They were ;
- I. Peshwas at Pune.
- II. Gaikwads at Baroda
- III. Bhonsle at Nagpur
- IV. Holkans at Indore
- V. Sindhias at Gwalier.
- The Peshwas were weakned by internal rivalries, the other four leaders were hostile to one another.
- The struggle among Marathas paved way to the British for intervening their administration.
First Anglo – Maratha war (1775 – 82)
The main reasons behind the war were
- The struggle for power between the Maratha leaders Sawai Madhava Rao ,supported by Nauaphadnis and Ragunath Rao.
- British attempt to take advantage of this struggle by intervening on behalf of Regunath Rao.
- In 1776 the Marathas defeated the British at Talegaon.
- In 1779 – 80 the British army under goddard marched from Culcutta to Ahmadabad through Central India and warn great victories.
- The war errupted during the governer ship of warren Hatings.
- The war continud up to 1782.
- It was ended and the status quo was maintained by the treaty of Salbai in 1782.
- It allowed the British 20 years of peace with the Marathas.
- Through this treay the British to exert pressure on Mysore with the help of maraths in recovering their territories from haider Ali.
Second Anglo – Maratha war ( 1803 – 05 )
- Lord Wellesley „s desire to impose subsidiary alliance on the Marathas was the main reason behind the IInd war.
- The weakening of Maratha kingdom due to the death of powerfull leaders by the end of 18th century also gave opportunity to the British.
- The Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II signed subsidiary treaty at Bassain in 1802.
- In 1803 the combined forces of Sindhia and Bhonsle were defeated under the British under Arther Wellesley at Assaye and Argaon and the former signed subsidiary treaties.
- The British failed to defeat another Maratha leader Holkar.
- Finally they were established peace with Holkar by signing treaty of Rajpurghat.
- After the second war the company becoming a paramount power in India.
Third Anglo – Maratha war ( 1817 – 18)
- The British residents rigid control and resentment of the Marathas against loss of freedom were the main reason behind the IIIrd war.
- The Peshwa was Dethrowned and sent to Bithur near Kanpur.
- The British annexed all the territories of Peshwa, and formed a new state named the “Bombey Presidence”.
- The kingdom of Satara was created out of Peshwa‟s lands to satisfy the Maratha pride.
- After the third war the Maratha chiefs too existed at the Mercy of the British.
Anglo – Maratha Treaties
Treaty of Surat – 1775
- The treaty was signed the company and Raghoba on March 6, 1775.
- Under the treaty
- English contigent of 2500 men was to be placed at the disposal of raghoba for supporting his candidates for the Peshwaship.
- Raghoba was deposit jewellery worth Rs. 6 lakhs as security in British custody and half lakh rupees every month for the up keep of the army.
- Raghoba agreed to code to the British ,Basin, Salsette ,and the four adjacent islands to Bombay.
- The treaty was gave opportunity to the British to actively involve in the Maratha affairs and lead to the first Anglo – Maratha was
Treaty of Purandhar – 1776
- The Peshwa‟s court at Poona and the British signed this treaty on march 1 ,1776
- Under this treaty.
- The company would restore salsette and its surroundings islands.
- Poona agreed to pay Rs.12 lakhs as war indemnity.
- The company restored the parts of Gujarat ceded to them by Raghunath rao or the Gakwewad.
- All treaties except those of 1739 and 1756 with Raghoba and Gakewad stood annulled.
Treaty of Wadgaon – 1779
- The treaty was signed on 1779 January 16 by Mahadaji Sindhia and colonel John camal representing the Marathas and the Bombay army respectively.
- Under this treaty.
- The Bombay government no longer protect Raghunath Rao or Raghoba and would surrender all acquisitions made by it since 1773.
- The troops advancing from Bengal were to stopped and a sum of Rs. 41000/- and two hostages such as William farmer and Charles Stewart surrendered as security for fulfilling this conditions.
- “ Broach” was to be handed over to Sindhia.
- Later this treaty was disapproaved by Bombay and Bengal government.
Treaty of salbai – 1782
- On May 1782 “ The treaty of Salbai” was signed by Mahadhaji Sindhia and theBritish at Salbai in Gwalior.
- This treaty was ending the first Anglo Maratha war.
- It stipulated that,
- Salsette , its neighbouring islands,and Broach city were to remain with the British .
- Territories granted earlier to the company by Reghunath Rao would be restored to the Marathas.
- The company was not to afford Reghunath Rao any support.
- The peshwa was to make Haider Ali relinquish his claims to British territory.
- Both parties were not to attain each others allies and the Peshwa not allow to settle any other European powers with out the English consent.
- The Company‟s trade privilige were to be restored .
- The treaty became a turning point for securing peace with the Marathas nearly for 20 yerars .
Treaty of bassein – 1802
- This treaty was signed by Baji Rao II with the English on December 13,1802 at bassein.
- Through this treaty ,the Peshwa Baji Rao II agreed the subsidery treaty with the English.
- Under this treaty in return for a deffencive alliance, the Peshwa agreed to the British.
- Maintain a subsidiary force of 6,000 infantry with a proportionate artillery and annual expense of Rs.25 lakhs to be estimated.
- Not to entertain any foreign national hostile to the british in his Service.
- Accept only British intercession to settle his difference with the Nizam and the Gakewad.
- Not to negotiate with any other state without company‟s prior permission.
- To relinguish for ever all his rights and claims to the city of Surat.
- A supplementary treaty to this treaty was concluded at Poona on December 16,1803.
- That stipulated the addition of a regiment of native cavalry to the British subsidiary force.
- In the words of Arthur Wellasely “ the treaty of Bassein” was “ a treaty with a Cipher” that is the peshwa.
Treaty of Deogaon – 1803
- This treaty was signed between Raghuji Bhonsle and the company on 1803 December 17.
- The treaty was signed on the course of IInd Anglo – Maratha war.
- Under this treaty Bhonsle agreed to
- Cuttack with Balasore gave the company control over the continues stretch of the eastern seaboard and linked the presidencies of Bengal and Madras.
- Expell all foreigners from his service.
- Accept British arbitration in all his disputes with the Nizam and the Peshwa.
- Respect treaties concluded by the British with his feudatories.
- Dissociate from the confederacy.
- Accept a British envoy to his court.
- Mount Sharet Elphinston was appointed as the envoy.
Treaty of Surji Arjangaon 1803
- On 1803 December 30 , this treaty was signed between the Sindhia an the British.
- Under this treaty Sindhia agreed to the British,
- Cede all territory between Ganga and the Yamuna.
- Give up his control of Delhi and Agra, as well as the Rajput states.
- A british envoy to his court.
- The first envoy to Sindhia‟s court was – John mal com
- Surrender parts of Bundelkhand , Ahmad nagar, Broach and territories west of the Ajanta hills.
- Accept the treaty of Bassein.
- Renounce all claims on the peshwaship and accept the company as a sovereign authority.
- Not to employ in his service any European with out British consent.
- In return the company promised to him, A force of „6‟ battalions of infantry.
- In 1804, February 27, a supplementary of this treaty namely “treaty of Burhanpur” was signed . the British agreed to support him with subsidiary force.
Treaty of Rajpurghat – 1805
- Signed between Yashvant Rao holkar and the company on December 24,1805.
- Under this treaty ,Holkar agreed to the British.
- To rennounce all claims to the area north of the Bundi Nills.
- Never to entertain in his service any European other than British.
- In return British promised,
- Not to disturb Holkar‟s possessions in Mewar, Malwa and south of the Chambal.
- To restore those of his possessions situated south of the river Tapti.
- In 1806, February 2, the British denied all claims to territory north of the Bundihills.
- This treaty marked the end of second Anglo Maratha war.
Treaty of Poona – 1817
- In 1817 , June 17 ,the treaty was signed between Baji Rao II ,the Maratha Peshwa and the British.
- According to this treaty ,the Peshwa agreed to,
- Cede to the British some more lands.
- Abide by the articles in the “treaty of Bassein”
Treaty of Gwalior – 1817
- Based on the preparation of compaign against the Pindaris, Lord Hasting signed the treaty of Gwalior with Daulath rao Sindhia on 1817, November 5.
- It stipulated that ;
- Both the parties would deploy their forces in operating against the Pindaris.
- Sindhia would never give any support to the Pindaris.
- Sindhia would to place 5,000 horsemen against the Pindaris ,and were not to change positions without the concurrence of the British.
- British forces would be permitted in to the forts of Handi and Asigarh.
- The provisions of earlier treaties of Surji Arjagaon and Mustafur pur on November 22, 1805 were not affected by provisions of the new agreement.
- The treaty of Gwalior made Sindhia a mere spectator in the IIIrd Anglo Matatha war.
Treaty of Mandalor – 1818
- Signed by Malhar Rao Holkar II and the British on January 6, 1818 in the course of 3rd Anglo – Maratha war.
- Under this treaty Holkar agreed to
- Confirm a British commitment to the Pindari chief ,Nawab Amirkhan and denied all claims to territories guaranteed to him .
- Cede in pepet vity to Raja zalimsing of Kotah , Bundi ,and Karauli.
- Renounce all claims to territories south of the Satpura hills.
- The stationary of a British field force to maintain his internal security.
- Not to employ any European with out the company‟s consent.
- Receive a British envoy.
- In return the British promised protection from the Peshwa and his Leirs and successors.
Sindh and its Annexation – 1843
- At first under Kaloras and from 1783 under Amirs of Baluchistan Sindh became autonomas after Mugal dis integration.
- Under Baluchi Amirs Sindh was divided in to three units they were;
- In 1809 Lord Minto 1 sent an ambassador to the Amirs and concluded a friendship treaty.
- In 1832, through a treaty with Lord Bentick the roads and rivers of Sindh were opened to the English trade.
- In 1839 ,Lord Auckland forced the Amirs to sign the subsidiary treaty.
- Lord Ellenborough provoked the Amirs in to a war.
- In 1842 Sir Charles Napier appointed as the British resident in Sindh on place of major James outram.
- In 1843 the British conquered and annexed Sindh to their empire.
Anglo – Sikh wars
- Ranjith singh made himself the master of Punjab.
- In 1809 at Amritsar ,Ranjith Singh was forced to Sign a “ Treaty of perpehial friendship” with the British.
- Ranjith Singh gave shelter to the Afghan king Shah shuja , and at this time he acquird the “Kohinoor diamond” from him.
- In 1839 Ranjith singh was died.
- His successors were unable to control Ranjith „s vast and glowing military establishment.
- This situation gave opportunity to interfere their internal affairs and it lead to the Anglo – Sikh wars.
First Anglo – Sikh War
- Main reason was the anarchy in Punjab after Ranjith‟s death.
- In 1845 Sir Huge Gough defeated the Sikh army under Lal singh on Mudki.
- In 1845, the Sikh army under Tej Singh was also defeated by the British at Ferzapur.
- In 1846 the British under Harry Smith was defeated by the Sikhs under Ranjur Singh Majithia at Buddewal.
- Defeat of Sikhs by Harry Smith at Aliwal.
- In 1846 the Sikhs were also defeated by Smith at Sobroan through one of the hardest fought battles in Indian History at crossing of Sutlej and occupied Lahore to the British.
- The First Anglo – Sikh war ended by the treaty of Lahore “On March ,1846 .
- Under this treaty.
- Ceding of the Jullunder Doab to the British.
- A war indemnity of Rs.1.5 crore to the British half from Sikhs and other got from sold Kashmir to Gulab singh.
- Sir Hentry Lawrence was appointed as the British resident in Lahore.
- Recognised Delip Singh as the ruler of Punjab and „ Rani Jindan‟ was the regant.
- Reduced Sikh army and abandoned to employing any European with out company’s prior consent.
- British troop was permitted to pass through Sikh territory whenever need arose.
- In 1846 , December another treaty “ Treaty of Bhairo wal “ was signed by the both it resulted.
- Removal of Rani Jindal from regent post and a council of regency including ‘8 ‘ Sikh Sardars presided over by Sir Henry Lawrence was established.
- A British force stationed at Lahore and the Sikh paid Rs .22 Lakhs for their expense.
- The governor general of India gained the power to take any fort in Punjab.
Second Anglo – Sikh War ( 1848 – 79)
- The main reason behind this war were;
- The decision of Sikh army to avenge their humiliation of the 1st war.
- The Sikh Sardars refused to agree the strict control of British over Punjab.
- The bad treatment of the British to the previous regent Rani Jindan.
- The revolt of the governor of Multhan Mulraj agains the British and Murder of British officers Vans Argew and Lal Anderson provoked the company and sent to Multan to take over its administration.
- Sher Singh , the British envoy to Multan joined himself to Mulraj‟s side and revolted against the British and leading to the out break of a rebellion by Sikh army and the Sardars.
- The main events of the War were.
- Battle of Rarna nagar , in 1848 and Battle of Chillia Wala in 1849 , between Shersingh and Lord Gough.
- Multan was captured by Lord Gough and MulRaj was transported for life.
- The Sikh army and Shersingh was finally defeated by Lord Gough at “Battle of Gujrat” in 1849.
- The result of the Second Anglo – Sikh War were.
- Punjab was annexed by Lord Delhousie and transferred Dileep Singh and his mother Rani Jindal to England.
- A Board of three commissioners as Lawerence brothers namely. Henry and John and Charles. G.Mansel in 1849 to administer Punjab.
- In 1853 the Board was abolished and appointed a Chief commissioner for Punjab.
- The First Chief commissioner for Punjab was Sir John Lawrence.